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Ozone Fact Sheet

In this fact sheet on ozone, we find information on how ozone is produced and used, the Benefits of Ozone, and how it can be used safely.

  • Ozone, or O3, is the tri-atomic form of oxygen. Stated simply, it is a molecule composed of three oxygen atoms.
  • In nature, ozone is formed by reactions involving ultraviolet rays, or by the electrical discharge of lighting.
  • Behind fluorine and hydroxyl radicals, ozone has the third-highest oxidation potential at 2.07 (see chart below).
  • Ozone is 50 times more powerful and over 3000 times faster acting than chlorine bleach. During its short “lifespan,” ozone is highly reactive.
  • The third molecule in O3 is bonded very loosely; it will break away, leaving pure oxygen, O2, and the single atom, O.
  • Ozone is a high-energy molecule. Its half-life in water at room temperature is only 20 minutes, and it decomposes into simple oxygen.
  • Because ozone can be produced on-site and on-demand, the effect is reduced chemical cost, storage, handling, and added plant safety.
  • There are no toxic byproducts or potential health hazards when properly used as a microbicide,” said Myron Jones, EPRI Food Technology Center Manager. (Microbial contaminants include salmonella and giardia.)

Oxidation Potential of Ozone Compared to Other Oxidizers

oxidation potential

EPA QUOTES ABOUT OZONE:

  • Ozone is more effective than chlorine in destroying viruses and bacteria.
  • The ozonation process utilizes a short contact time.
  • There are no harmful residuals that need to be removed after ozone because ozone decomposes rapidly.
  • After ozonation, there is no re-growth of microorganisms, except for those protected by the particulates in the wastewater stream.
  • Ozone is generated on-site, and thus, there are fewer safety problems associated with shipping and handling.
  • Ozonation elevates the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of the effluent. The increase in DO can eliminate the need for re-aeration and also raise the level of DO in the receiving stream.

OZONE O3

  • Molecule
    • 1840: C. F. Schönbein
    • 3 oxygen atoms
  • Properties
    • Molecular weight: 48,00 g/mol
    • Boiling point: -111,9°C (1 atm)
    • Gas density: 2,144 g/l (0°C, 1 atm)
    • Enthalpy of formation: 142,12 kJ/mol
    • Solubility in water: 1370 mg/l (1 atm)

OZONE GAS CHARACTERISTICS

  • Invisible at normal concentrations
  • Has a distinct pungent odor
  • Heavier than air (vapor density =1.65; air =1.0)
  • Decomposes to oxygen molecules

OZONE:

  • Is the strongest commercial oxidant
  • Is a stron disinfectant
  • Can form HO radicals for AOP
  • Has a residual short-lived converts to O2
  • Is Generated On-site

CHEMISTRIES OF OZONE IN WATER

DIRECT REACTION

  • Cycloaddition, electrophilic reaction, electron transfer, oxygen atom transfer
  • Highly selective reactions with a wide range of organics and inorganics

INDIRECT REACTION

  • Decomposition into HO° (E° = 2.80 V) on initiation
  • Fast and unselective reactions
  • Scavenging effect

OZONE FEED GAS

  • The first step in generating ozone is creating concentrated oxygen to feed the ozone generator.
  • On average over 90% of all ozone equipment problems are due to poor quality air or oxygen.

OXYGEN INFO

  • makes up 20.94% (by volume) of the air we breathe
  • Is colorless, odorless, & tasteless
  • The most widely occurring element on earth
  • The second-largest volume of industrial gas produced
  • Forms compounds with all chemical elements except the 9 noble gases
  • Highly valued for its reactivity by itself & in its more reactive form, Ozone

HOW TO PRODUCE OXYGEN

  • All systems utilize molecular sieve to perform the separation process
  • The size of the sieve varies depending on the volume & pressure of air being separated
  • The formula of the sieve varies depending on the function of the sieve
  • The maximum purity that can be achieved with PSA & VPSA is 95.6%

METHODS OF OZONE GENERATION

  • Ultraviolet (UV): Ultraviolet light at 185 nm generates a low concentration of O3.
  • Corona Discharge: The most popular method for large and small applications. Used extensively for municipal water treatment
  • Electrolysis: In-situ generation of ozone in water. Frequently used in high purity water applications cleanliness and low dissolved oxygen is important.
  • Plasma Block: The most effective, reliable, and economic method. Used in wastewater, bottled water plants, and others.

OZONE CONTACTING SYSTEM

Factors Affecting Mass Transfer

  • Gas-Phase Concentration
  • Gas to Liquid Ratio (Vg/Vl)
  • Pressure within the Contacting System
  • Water Temperature
  • Mixing (Gas/Liquid Interface Renewal)
  • Contact Time
  • Instantaneous O3 Demand

OZONE OFF-GAS DESTRUCTION

  • Thermal
  • Catalyst
  • Thermal/Catalytic
  • Chemical
  • Deliver Off-Gas to other use locations

OZONE SAFETY

  • Materials of Construction
  • Ventilation
  • Safety Monitoring
  • Exposure Limits
  • Ozone Destructs

SAFETY OZONE ADVANTAGES

  • Ozone is not stored in bulk on-site
  • The catastrophic large-scale release is not likely because generator shutdown stops ozone supply
  • Ozone is not explosive or flammable
  • leaks are identifiable – repair when they occur
  • No reported fatalities from ozone exposure

IMPORTANT OZONE SAFETY CONCEPTS

  • Automatic warning – You can smell ozone before it will harm you
  • Effects of ozone exposure are a function of time and concentration
  • First aid
  • Low-level exposure – get fresh air
  • High-level exposure – seek medical attention
  • Fix leaks when they occur

OZONE HALF-LIFE

  • Gas-Phase ~ 20 minutes (20° C)
  • Residual (Dissolved Ozone) – Decay
  • at pH 6.0 ~ 20 minutes, at pH 7.0 ~ 15 minutes, at pH 8.0 ~ 5 minutes

RESIDUAL DISSOLVED OZONE DESTRUCTION

  • UV at 254 nm wavelength.
  • 90mJ/cm2 UV fluence is effective for 1 mg/l O3 destruction to below detectable limits in high purity water.
  • Confirm UV sizing for the actual application
  • Produces OH• radicals (short-lived) & O2
  • Germicidal or TOC UV lamps both work
  • Protects downstream process from undesirable O3 oxidation

WHY USE OZONE?

  • Oxidation of organic color and odor compounds
  • Microflocculation improves water clarity
  • Reduced Chemical Consumption(residual sanitizer & pH)
  • Improved Aesthetics
  • Bather comfort (skin, eyes, hair)
  • Reduced odors
  • Superior disinfection protection
  • Visibility

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