Sizing of Ozone Equipment
Do you need assistance with sizing your ozone system and understanding ozone generators?
We understand that properly sizing ozone equipment can be a challenging task. It requires expertise and there is no substitute for it. That’s why we offer a free and no-obligation service to help you make an informed decision about the correct ozone equipment that suits your unique requirements. If you need professional guidance on how to size your ozone equipment effectively, please don’t hesitate to contact us. Our team of experts has over 30 years of experience in the field and is always ready to assist you in any way we can.
This informative article provides helpful guidelines for selecting the right ozone generator, determining the amount of ozone, ozone concentration, ozone exposure time, and all that you need to achieve optimal results. If you need additional assistance selecting an ozone generator, our friendly team is just a phone call or email away and is always happy to help.
Ozone is created when an energy source into oxygen atoms dissociates oxygen (O2) molecules and collides with an oxygen molecule to form an unstable gas, one of the most potent oxidants. Although ozone can be applied as a gas, in most applications, ozone is utilized in an aqueous solution (ozonation or ozonization). The effectiveness and usefulness of ozone have been demonstrated over the years with its wide range of applications, for example, in water treatment or the food industry. With an oxidation-reduction potential of 2.07 V, ozone is one of the strongest and most reactive known sanitizers that quickly eliminates harmful bacteria and microorganisms.
An Industrial ozone generator is a device that produces ozone by breaking apart oxygen (O2) molecules into single atoms, which are attached to other oxygen molecules to form ozone (O3). Ozone generator equipment produces ozone (O3) by applying an electrical charge to the oxygen molecules (O2) as air passes through, which causes the oxygen atoms to part ways and temporarily recombine with other oxygen molecules. The oxygen concentrator feeds with enriched oxygen allowing a high concentration of ozone and high ozone production.
Ozone is generated industrially by Plasma Ozone Generators. These ozone generators work on the principle of dielectric barrier discharge. As the electrical charge passes through the oxygen, it ionizes the gas to a point where it becomes electrically conductive and forms Plasma. Plasma Ozone generators can generate ozone gas at concentrations of 10-15%.
Ozone generators are categorized by the amount of ozone generated measured in grams per hour (or pounds per day). You can find a small unit with a nominal ozone production of 15 g/h (NANO 15) or more capable with 200 g/h (Magnum 200). Essentially, this is how much ozone is produced in a period of time. Although it may sound self-evident, it is crucial to understand that you lack vital information. The production of 15 g/h of ozone using an oxygen flow rate of 4 LPM will have a higher concentration than the production of 15 g/h using a flow rate of 12 LPM. Therefore, you always need to know your concentration as well. Ozone concentration is the ratio of total feed gas to ozone production, measured in g/m³ or wt%.
For example, as you can see in this performance chart. At 20 PSI and 3, SLPM Atlas 30 produces 30 g/h ozone at 10.6 wt% (The absence of a performance table is usually a sign that the ozone generator is not performing well.)
Ozone mass transfer is the movement of a gas phase into water. In most Ozone applications, ozone needs to be dissolved into water. Ozone gas is partially soluble in the liquid. However, high mass transfer efficiencies can be reached using proper methods and equipment. Ozone can be transferred by bubbling or mixing with a venturi mass transfer system. Initially, diffusion stones were the primary method for transferring ozone mass to water. Venturi-based mass transfer systems are currently the preferred method for dissolving ozone in water due to their simplicity, economy, and effectiveness. In addition, a venturi injector has about 90% efficient and can be up to 99% efficient at dissolving ozone into the water. Atlas 30, made by Absolute Ozone®, can dissolve in water 20-25 g/h out of 30 g/h produced, as typically ozone concentration of this ozone generator is 8-14% by Wt. Furthermore, in our experiments and information that we got from some of our customers, there are even 27g/h of dissolved ozone amounts achieved.
Check this for more information: Mass Transfer of High Concentration Ozone with High-Efficiency Injectors, Ozone Mass Transfer Beginners Guide.
What size ozone generator do I need?
The following information is necessary to determine the right size Ozone Generator for Water Treatment:
- Water quality and Ozone demand (via water sample analysis)
- Ozone dosage
- Flowrate / Inline pressure /Water Temperature
- The volume of water (for recirculating systems)
Water Quality and Ozone Demand
To remove contaminants from water using ozone, it is important to understand how the amount of ozone required is affected by the amount of ozone demand. Ozone is not selective; therefore, ozone reacts with “contaminants” in the water, affecting the ozone dosage. A water sample is required for analysis to ensure the correct dosage is provided. For reference, this table shows the typical demand required for different contaminants.
Iron 0.14 to 0.50 mg/l
Manganese 0.88 mg/l
Hydrogen Sulfide 3.0 mg/l
The ozone dosage required per mg/litre of contaminant is as follows – this figure must be added to the target dosage to ensure there is enough ozone to be effective:
Dosage is the required amount of ozone, expressed in mg/l (milligrams per litre) or ppm (parts per million). Either value is the same.
There is a large range of applications requiring different dosages.
Bottled water 0.05-0.3 ppm
Cooling towers 0.05 – 0.3 ppm
Reclaimed water 0.2 – 0.5 ppm
Bacteria & Virus 0.2 – 1.0 ppm
If you need help with ozone equipment and the dosage required in your applications, contact us now. We have over 30 years of experience in a wide range of ozone applications. Our personnel will be happy to assist you.
For single-pass applications, you can calculate the ozone dosage (g/h) by multiplying the dosage required by contaminant level by flow rate.
For example, the dosage required is 2 ppm – the contaminant level (demand) is 8 mg/l – flowrate is 4000 litres per hour
= 2 (mg/l) x 8 (mg/l) x 4000 (l/h)
= 64000 (mg/h) + 25% safety factor
= 80000 (mg/h)
= 80 (g/h)
There are two important points to mention here. The first is about the decomposition of Ozone; ozone in an aqueous solution has a self-decomposition reaction. The decomposition reaction is a function of temperature. For example, you must add 25% more for every extra 6 degrees in the water temperature. Check this for more information: Sizing ozone equipment for your pool /How to Compensate for Half-Life of Ozone in Water / Half-life of Ozone.
Second, It is impossible to dissolve all the ozone produced in water; the higher the ozone level, the higher the mass transfer efficiency. In this example, you need to be able to have 80 g/h of ozone dissolved in water, which does not mean that you need an 80 g/h ozone generator. For example,When it comes to industrial ozone applications, the concentration of ozone produced by the generator plays a vital role. For instance, Atlas 100 is capable of producing ozone at high concentrations, which allows it to dissolve nearly 90% of the ozone. On the other hand, air-feed ozone machines produce ozone at a much lower concentration, resulting in only 4-5% of ozone being dissolved. Therefore, it’s crucial to choose a high-performance ozone generator to achieve optimal results in industrial applications.
Contact Us for more information on how to size and ozone equipment.