• Evolution of Ozone
o Ozone first discovered by Dr. Shoenbein, Basil, Switzerland, born August 1799.
o First commercially used for disinfection in a municipality in France in 1899.
o Oldest operating municipal plant using ozone is in Poland (commissioned in 1901) & Nice,
France since 1906
o Oldest US plant in Whiting, Indiana 1940
o 3,000 municipal plant Worldwide (400+ in USA)
o 1,000’s Commercial and Industrial Installations
• Ozone, or O3, is the tri-atomic form of oxygen.
• Stated simply, it is a molecule composed of three oxygen atoms.
• In nature, ozone is formed by reactions involving ultraviolet rays, or by the electrical discharge of
• Mountain High uses plasma block technology to produce ozone and Seair’s Diffusion System to
inject the ozone.
• Behind fluorine and hydroxyl radicals, ozone has the third highest oxidation potential at 2.07 (see
• Ozone is 50 times more powerful and over 3000 times faster acting than chlorine bleach.
• During its short “lifespan,” ozone is highly reactive.
• The third molecule in O3 is bonded very loosely; it will break away, leaving pure oxygen, O2, and the
single atom, O.
• The separated O2 stays in water tripling its dissolved oxygen. It turns water from an anaerobic
environment to an aerobic environment.
• Ozone is a high-energy molecule. Its half life in water at room temperature is only 20 minutes, and it
decomposes into simple oxygen.
• Because ozone can be produced onsite and on demand, the effect is reduced chemical cost, storage, handling and added plant safety.
• There are no toxic byproducts or potential health hazards when properly used as a microbiocide," said Myron Jones, EPRI Food Technology Center Manager. (Microbial contaminants include salmonella and giardia.)
• EPA Quotes about Ozone:
o Ozone is more effective than chlorine in destroying viruses and bacteria.
o The ozonation process utilizes a short contact time (Approximately 10 to 30minutes).
o There are no harmful residuals that need to be removed after ozonation because ozone
o After ozonation, there is no re-growth of microorganisms, except for those protected by the
particulates in the wastewater stream.
o Ozone is generated on site, and thus, there are fewer safety problems associated with shipping and handling.
o Ozonation elevates the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of the effluent. The increase in DO can eliminate the need for re-aeration and also raise
the level of DO in the receiving stream.
• Ozone O3
• 1840: C. F. Schönbein
• 3 oxygen atoms
• Molecular weight
• Boiling temperature
• Gas density
• Enthalpy of formation
• Solubility in water
• Ozone Gas Characteristics
o Invisible at normal concentrations
o Has distinct pungent odor
o Heavier than air
(vapor density =1.65; air =1.0)
o Decomposes to oxygen molecules
o Strongest Commercial Oxidant
o Strongest Disinfectant
o Can form HO •radicals for AOP
o Adds no Chemicals
o Residual short lived, converts to O2
o Can create DBP(Bromate)
o Generated On-site
• Chemistries of ozone in water
-111,9°C (1 atm)
2,144 g/l (0°C, 1 atm)
1370 mg/l (1 atm)
• Direct Reaction
o Cycloaddition, electrophilic reaction, electron transfer, oxygen atom transfer
o Highly selective reactions with a wide range of organics and inorganics
• Indirect Reaction
o Decomposition into HO° (E° = 2.80 V) on initiation
o Fast and unselective reactions
o Scavenging effect
• Ozone feed gas
o The first step in generationg ozone is creating concentraded oxygen to feed the ozone
o On average over 90% of all ozone equipment problems are due to poor quality air or oxygen.
• Oxygen Info
o It makes up 20.94% by volume of the air we breathe
o It is colorless, odorless, & tasteless
o It is the most widely occurring element on earth
o It is the second largest volume industrial gas produced
o It forms compounds with all chemical elements except the 9 noble gases
o It is highly valued for its reactivity by itself & in its more reactive form, Ozone
• How to produce oxygen
o All systems utilize molecular sieve to perform the separation process
o The size of the sieve varies depending on the volume & pressure of air being separated
o The formula of the sieve varies depending on the function of the sieve
o The maximum purity that can be achieved with PSA & VPSA is 95.6%
• Methods of Ozone Generation
o Ultraviolet (UV)
- Ultraviolet light at 185 nm generates low concentration O3.
o Corona Discharge
- The most popular method for large and small applications. Used extensively for
municipal water treatment
- In-situ generation of ozone in water. Frequently used in high purity water
applications cleanliness and low dissolved oxygen is important.
o Plasma Block
- The most efficta, reliable, and economic method. Used is wastewater, bottled water
plants, and golf.
• Ozone Contacting System
o “Putting Ozone to Work by Dissolving it in Water”
o Factors Affecting Mass Transfer
- Gas Phase Concentration
- Gas to Liquid Ratio (Vg/Vl)
- Pressure within the Contacting System
- Water Temperature
- Mixing (Gas/Liquid Interface Renewal)
- Contact Time
- Instantaneous O3 Demand
• Ozone off-gas Destruction
o Deliver Off-Gas
o to other use location
• Ozone Destruction Technologies
o Thermal Destruction
o Chemical/GAC Destruction
o Catalytic Destruction
• Ozone Safety
o Materials of Construction
o Safety Monitoring
o Exposure Limits
o Ozone Destructs
• Ozone Safety Advantages
o Ozone is not stored in bulk on-site
o Catastrophic large-scale release is not likely because generator shutdown stops ozone supply
o Ozone is not explosive or flammable
o leaks are identifiable - repair when they occur
o No reported fatalities from ozone exposure
Please. Think safety.
• Important ozone Safety Concepts
o Automatic warning - You can smell ozone before it will harm you
o Effects of ozone exposure are a function of time and concentration
o First aid
o Low level exposure - get fresh air
o High level exposure - seek medical attention
o Fix leaks when they occur
• Ozone Demand-Decay Curve
• Ozone Half Life
o Gas Phase ~ 20 minutes (20° C)
o Residual (Dissolved Ozone) - Decay
o at pH 6.0 ~ 20 minutes
o at pH 7.0 ~ 15 minutes
o at pH 8.0 ~ 5 minutes
o Will vary with reaction rate
• Residual Dissolved ozone Destruction
o UV at 254 nm wavelength.
UV fluence effective for 1 mg/l O3 destruction to below detectable limits in high
o Confirm UV sizing for actual application
o Produces OH• radicals (short lived) & O2
o Germicidal or TOC UV lamps both work
o Protects downstream process from undesirable O3 oxidation
• Why Use Ozone?
o Oxidation of organic color and odor compounds
o Microflocculation improves water clarity
o Reduced Chemical Consumption(residual sanitizer & pH)
o Improved Aesthetics
o Bather comfort (skin, eyes, hair)
o Reduced odors
o Superior disinfection protection
Should you have any questions or concerns, please, do not hesitate to contact us either by filling out this form or calling us directly 1-877-486-3761
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10712 181 Street
Edmonton, AB, Canada
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