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Ozone Fact Sheet


• Evolution of Ozone

o Ozone first discovered by Dr. Shoenbein, Basil, Switzerland, born August 1799.

o First commercially used for disinfection in a municipality in France in 1899.

o Oldest operating municipal plant using ozone is in Poland (commissioned in 1901) & Nice,

   France since 1906

o Oldest US plant in Whiting, Indiana 1940

o 3,000 municipal plant Worldwide (400+ in USA)

o 1,000’s Commercial and Industrial Installations


Ozone, or O3, is the tri-atomic form of oxygen.

• Stated simply, it is a molecule composed of three oxygen atoms.

• In nature, ozone is formed by reactions involving ultraviolet rays, or by the electrical discharge of


• Mountain High uses plasma block technology to produce ozone and Seair’s Diffusion System to

  inject the ozone.

• Behind fluorine and hydroxyl radicals, ozone has the third highest oxidation potential at 2.07 (see

  chart below).

• Ozone is 50 times more powerful and over 3000 times faster acting than chlorine bleach.

• During its short “lifespan,” ozone is highly reactive.

• The third molecule in O3 is bonded very loosely; it will break away, leaving pure oxygen, O2, and the

  single atom, O.

• The separated O2 stays in water tripling its dissolved oxygen. It turns water from an anaerobic

  environment to an aerobic environment.

• Ozone is a high-energy molecule. Its half life in water at room temperature is only 20 minutes, and it

  decomposes into simple oxygen.

• Because ozone can be produced onsite and on demand, the effect is reduced chemical cost, storage, handling and added plant safety.

• There are no toxic byproducts or potential health hazards when properly used as a microbiocide," said Myron Jones, EPRI Food Technology Center      Manager. (Microbial contaminants include salmonella and giardia.)

Oxidation Potential of Ozone Compared to Other Oxidizers


• EPA Quotes about Ozone:

o Ozone is more effective than chlorine in destroying viruses and bacteria.

o The ozonation process utilizes a short contact time (Approximately 10 to 30minutes).

o There are no harmful residuals that need to be removed after ozonation because ozone

decomposes rapidly.

o After ozonation, there is no re-growth of microorganisms, except for those protected by the

particulates in the wastewater stream.

o Ozone is generated on site, and thus, there are fewer safety problems associated with shipping and handling.

o Ozonation elevates the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of the effluent. The increase in DO can eliminate the need for re-aeration and also raise

the level of DO in the receiving stream.


• Ozone O3

o Molecule

• 1840: C. F. Schönbein

•  3 oxygen atoms

o Properties

•  Molecular weight

•  Boiling temperature

•  Gas density

•  Enthalpy of formation

•  Solubility in water

• Ozone Gas Characteristics

o Invisible at normal concentrations

o Has distinct pungent odor

o Heavier than air

(vapor density =1.65; air =1.0)

o Decomposes to oxygen molecules

• Ozone

o Strongest Commercial Oxidant

o Strongest Disinfectant

o Can form HO •radicals for AOP

o Adds no Chemicals

o Residual short lived, converts to O2

o Can create DBP(Bromate)

o Generated On-site

• Chemistries of ozone in water

48,00 g/mol

 -111,9°C (1 atm)

2,144 g/l (0°C, 1 atm)

142,12 kJ/mol

1370 mg/l (1 atm)

• Direct Reaction

o Cycloaddition, electrophilic reaction, electron transfer, oxygen atom transfer

o Highly selective reactions with a wide range of organics and inorganics


• Indirect Reaction

o Decomposition into HO° (E° = 2.80 V) on initiation

o Fast and unselective reactions

o Scavenging effect


• Ozone feed gas

o The first step in generationg ozone is creating concentraded oxygen to feed the ozone

generator with.

o On average over 90% of all ozone equipment problems are due to poor quality air or oxygen.


• Oxygen Info

o It makes up 20.94% by volume of the air we breathe

o It is colorless, odorless, & tasteless

o It is the most widely occurring element on earth

o It is the second largest volume industrial gas produced

o It forms compounds with all chemical elements except the 9 noble gases

o It is highly valued for its reactivity by itself & in its more reactive form, Ozone


• How to produce oxygen

o All systems utilize molecular sieve to perform the separation process

o The size of the sieve varies depending on the volume & pressure of air being separated

o The formula of the sieve varies depending on the function of the sieve

o The maximum purity that can be achieved with PSA & VPSA is 95.6%


• Methods of Ozone Generation

o Ultraviolet (UV)

-  Ultraviolet light at 185 nm generates low concentration O3.

o Corona Discharge

-  The most popular method for large and small applications. Used extensively for

municipal water treatment

o Electrolysis

-  In-situ generation of ozone in water. Frequently used in high purity water

   applications cleanliness and low dissolved oxygen is important.

o Plasma Block

-  The most efficta, reliable, and economic method. Used is wastewater, bottled water

   plants, and golf.


• Ozone Contacting System

o “Putting Ozone to Work by Dissolving it in Water”

o Factors Affecting Mass Transfer

- Gas Phase Concentration

- Gas to Liquid Ratio (Vg/Vl)

- Pressure within the Contacting System

- Water Temperature

- Mixing (Gas/Liquid Interface Renewal)

- Contact Time

- Instantaneous O3 Demand


• Ozone off-gas Destruction

o Thermal

o Catalyst

o Thermal/Catalytic

o Chemical

o Deliver Off-Gas

o to other use location

• Ozone Destruction Technologies

o Thermal Destruction

o Chemical/GAC Destruction

o Catalytic Destruction

o Ultraviolet

• Ozone Safety

o Materials of Construction

o Ventilation

o Safety Monitoring

o Exposure Limits

o Ozone Destructs

• Ozone Safety Advantages

o Ozone is not stored in bulk on-site

o Catastrophic large-scale release is not likely because generator shutdown stops ozone supply

o Ozone is not explosive or flammable

o leaks are identifiable - repair when they occur

o No reported fatalities from ozone exposure

Please. Think safety.

• Important ozone Safety Concepts

o Automatic warning - You can smell ozone before it will harm you

o Effects of ozone exposure are a function of time and concentration

o First aid

o Low level exposure - get fresh air

o High level exposure - seek medical attention

o Fix leaks when they occur

• Ozone Demand-Decay Curve





• Ozone Half Life

o Gas Phase ~ 20 minutes (20° C)

o Residual (Dissolved Ozone) - Decay

o at pH 6.0 ~ 20 minutes

o at pH 7.0 ~ 15 minutes

o at pH 8.0 ~ 5 minutes

o Will vary with reaction rate

• Residual Dissolved ozone Destruction

o UV at 254 nm wavelength.

o 90mJ/cm2

 UV fluence effective for 1 mg/l O3 destruction to below detectable limits in high

purity water.

o Confirm UV sizing for actual application

o Produces OH• radicals (short lived) & O2

o Germicidal or TOC UV lamps both work

o Protects downstream process from undesirable O3 oxidation

• Why Use Ozone?

o Oxidation of organic color and odor compounds

o Microflocculation improves water clarity

o Reduced Chemical Consumption(residual sanitizer & pH)

o Improved Aesthetics

o Bather comfort (skin, eyes, hair)

o Reduced odors

o Superior disinfection protection

o Visibility


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