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Introduction to Ozone for Water Treatment

An ozone water treatment system reduces contaminants using the oxidative power of ozone. Ozone is created in ozone generators and is used to treat water. The ozone is then injected into the water and immediately eliminates contaminants, such as bacteria, viruses, and metals. This article is an introduction to ozone water treatment.

What is Ozone?

Ozone is a triatomic form of oxygen with the chemical formula O3. It is a pale blue gas with a distinctively pungent smell. In addition to being natural, ozone gas can also be generated industrially. Its atomic structure strongly influences its reactivity. The extra oxygen atom can easily attach to other substances. That means ozone is an unstable molecule that decomposes to oxygen. So, It must be produced on-site as used. The Typical half-life of ozone gas at 20 C is 3 days and 20 minutes when ozone is dissolved in water.

ozone dipole

Chemical Properties of Ozone?

  • Ozone is an excellent broad-spectrum oxidizing
  • Ozone is a strong chemical oxidant
  • Reduces the toxicity of organic compounds
  • can be combined with UV or Peroxide to generate hydroxyl radicals to create an advanced oxidation process

Ozone is a very strong oxidant and virucide and is widely used for disinfection, Ozone destroyed bacteria because it directs protoplasmatic oxidation resulting in cell wall disintegration.

The effectiveness of a biocide in drinking water disinfection system is  normally described by its concentration-time or CT value which is defined as a product of the average concentration of ozone( residual) multiplied by the exposure time

Ct values (min · mg/L) for 4-log inactivation of viruses

Inactivation by Temp 5ºC Temp 10ºC Temp 20ºC Temp 25ºC
Chlorine dioxide 33.4 25.1 12.5 8.4
Ozone 1.2 1 0.5 0.3

Ct values (min · mg/L) for 3-log inactivation of Giardia cysts

Inactivation by Temp 5ºC Temp 10ºC Temp 20ºC Temp 25ºC
Chlorine dioxide 26 23 15 11
Ozone 1.9 1.43 0.72 0.48

Source: Water and Wastewater Engineering: Design Principles and Practice, Mackenzie L.

For the table, we can see ozone has the lowest CT values which mean needs the least amount of exposure time or the least amount of biocides to inactivate virus or bacterias

Check this interesting article about ozone vs chlorine for water disisnfection

Ozone System for Water treatment

The Main Components of an ozone water treatment system are the feed gas source + ozone generator + ozone transfer system

water disinfection system

Feed Gas

Oxygen-feed ozone generators are the best choice for all industrial applications.

  • We recommended using a PSA Oxygen concentrators to produce Ozone
  • oxygen concentrator produces oxygen with 90-95% of purity
  • Oxygen feed Ozone generator results in a concentration of 4-20 wt.%
  • Air feed Ozone generator results in a very lower concentration of 1-3 wt.% (not suitable for water applications)

Air-feed generators are not suitable for most industrial applications. Remember that only 21% of air is oxygen this significantly affects the ozone concentration that a generator can achieve. In addition, inside the cells, the remaining 78% of the nitrogen will form nitric oxide deposits. In this way, ozone production will gradually decrease after a few months.

read more about feed gas

Ozone Generators

Absolute Ozone® – ozone generators are equipped with a Dialectric Barrier Plasma Discharge cell. Absolute Ozone® air colled equipment produces ozone at very high concentrations typically in the range of 5 to 16 wt.%.

Absolute Ozone generator here

  • Low Oxygen Requirement 2-3 slpm for 1 ppd of ozone

  • High-Pressure Range 10-120 PSIG working pressure

  • PCOP System – Pressure Compensated Ozone Production System

  • Air Cooled, works well at up to +40C, no need to pay for water, water conditioning & air conditioning systems

  • No Maintenance, no serviceable parts, leakproof construction tested at up to 150 PSIG, reliable, less operating cost.

  • 5 Years Warranty & “Right on Spec” Performance Warranty, The only warranty that Guarantees performance, in the ozone industry

Ozone Mass Transfer

Ozone needs to be dissolved into water. Ozone gas is partially soluble in the liquid, the solubility efficiency depends on factors such as temperature pressure, and concentration. However, using proper methods and equipment high mass transfer efficiencies can be reached.

Venturi-based mass transfer systems are the preferred method for dissolving ozone in water due to their simplicity, economy, and effectiveness. Venturi injector has about 90% efficient and can be up to 99% efficient at dissolving ozone into the water.

Learn more about ozone mass transfer

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