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Ozone FAQ

What is Ozone?

An ozone molecule is nothing more than an oxygen molecule that has received an extra oxygen atom. nature constantly produces ozone. A well-known example is the ozone layer, created by UV rays (UV) emitted by the sun. Also, nature produces ozone during storms and waterfalls. When one speaks of ozone, the above-mentioned examples are immediately associated with it. In contrast, it is less known that a generator can artificially produce ozone for disinfection purposes. Ozone generators can create ozone artificially by means of high voltages. The methods involve the decomposition of the oxygen molecule that causes oxygen radical formation. These oxygen radicals can bind to oxygen molecules, forming ozone (O3). The ozone molecule is volatile and has a short half-life, causing it to fall back into its original.

ozone molecule

How does ozone work?

Known as one of the strongest oxidants, ozone can easily burn dissolved compounds (oxidation). The extra oxygen radical in an ozone molecule quickly binds to each component that comes in contact with ozone molecules. This is because of the instability of ozone and its inclination to return to its original form (O2). Ozone can oxidize both organic and inorganic substances, such as viruses, bacteria, and fungi. In the oxidation process, the extra oxygen radical from the ozone molecule reacts with other materials, leaving only pure and stable oxygen molecules (O2).

Ozone has many uses in different industries. For example in wastewater and drinking water purification for disinfection, In Food industry uses ozone for disinfection and extended shelflife. The textile industry uses ozone for color removal and there are many other uses for ozone.
The most significant benefit of ozone is its pure characteristic. It only needs oxygen and energy for its formation, and as a result byproduct formation rarely occurs and does not leave any chemical residual.

Dosage is the required amount of ozone, it is expressed in mg/l (milligrams per liter) or ppm (parts per million). Either value is the same. There is a large range of applications requiring different dosages. the following are reference values for some typical applications of ozone:

Typical Ozone Dosage:

Bottled water 0.05-0.3 ppm

Cooling towers 0.05 – 0.3 ppm

Reclaimed water 0.2 – 0.5 ppm

Bacteria & Virus 0.2 – 1.0 ppm

If you need help with the dosage required in your applications contact us now. We have more than 30 years of experience in a wide range of ozone applications. Our personnel will be happy to assist you.

How does an ozone generator work?

Ozone generators produce ozone (O3) by applying an electrical charge to the oxygen molecules (O2) passes through which causes the oxygen atoms to part ways and temporarily recombine with other oxygen molecules. Industrial ozone generators have cells designed to diffuse electrical discharge through a dielectric material to generate ozone.

oxygen ozone cycle

Industrially, ozone is primarily generated with cold plasma (also called dielectric barrier discharge). It is simply a diffused spark through a dielectric to spread out the electrical discharge to a large area. In this method, the electric charge applied to the electrodes causes that some of the oxygen molecules to split apart and temporarily combine with other oxygen molecules making a molecule of three oxygen atoms (O3).

ozone plasma

Why do I need an oxygen concentrator?

One of the first questions one often faces when designing an ozone system is whether I require concentrated oxygen or just clean, dry air. I will explain why oxygen-feed ozone generators are the best choice for all industrial applications. It is very likely that your first online search for “ozone generators” will lead you to a series of air-feed generators. Most of these generators are sold as air purifiers for home use but are not practical for industrial applications.

Industrial ozone generators use Plasma technology. Plasma Ozone Generators work on the principle of dielectric barrier discharge. An electric field between an anode and a cathode through a pure oxygen source (~95% purity). As the electrical charge passes through the oxygen, it ionizes the gas to a point where it becomes electrically conductive and forms a Plasma. Plasma Ozone generators require high concentrations of oxygen and can generate ozone gas concentrations of 10-15%.

Benefits of plasma over corona discharge ozone generation

  • Plasma Ozone Generators offer higher ozone gas concentrations in a smaller footprint than the equivalent Corona Discharge Ozone Generators.
  • Unlike Corona Discharge Ozone Generators, Plasma Ozone Generators operate using a pure oxygen feed, so they are not affected by fluctuations in Ozone gas concentration.
  • Plasma Ozone Generators do not form corrosive and toxic nitric acids as the feed gas does not contain Nitrogen and is generally free of moisture.
  • Plasma Ozone Generators generate less heat as compared to a Corona Discharge Ozone Generator of the same capacity.

What are ozone production and ozone concentration?

The performance of an ozone generator is measured by its concentration (% wt or g/m³) and production (g/hr). Both measurements are critical. But what do they mean? Ozone production refers to the mass of ozone produced over time, measured in grams per hourIt is obviously closely related to the flow of oxygen/air at the generator inlet. Ozone concentration can be calculated by dividing total feed gas by total ozone produced (g/m³ or % by weight). For example, let’s compare two ozone generators that have the same production.

Generator A: Air-feed 30 g/h that required 12.5 SLPM of air. Generator B oxygen-feed 30 g/h. that only  required 4 SLPM of oxygen

Let’s do a simple calculation to compare the concentration, image runs both units for 1 hour. “Generator A” will give you the 30 g of ozone but in a mixture of 750 liters, generator B will give you the same 30 g but in only 240 liters

Solubility measures how much solute can be dissolved into a solvent to make a solution. An important fact is that not all ozone is soluble in water. Henry’s Law dictates (simplified) that the higher the ozone concentration, the more ozone you can dissolve in water. The ozone concentration is essential to dissolving ozone in water.

What is ozone mass transfer?

Ozone mass transfer is the movement of a gas phase into water. It is usually necessary to dissolve ozone in water for most Ozone applications. Ozone gas is partially soluble in the liquid. However, it is possible to reach high mass transfer efficiency using proper methods and equipment. Ozone can be transferred by either bubbling or mixing with a venturi mass transfer system. Initially, diffusion stones were the primary method for transferring ozone mass to water. Currently, venturi-based mass transfer systems are the preferred method for dissolving ozone in water due to their simplicity, economy, and effectiveness. In addition, a venturi injector has about 90% efficient and can be up to 99% efficient at dissolving ozone into the water.

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